All posts by alex king

Platform Dependency

Dependent
Some reason on why games are platform dependent is that want to use exclusives features of the console such as being able to use a touch screen on the controller in the Wii U, it could be that the company has struck a deal that owner of a consoles in which they will only release on their console but they will get funding or it could be that they have specially gone programmed with the consoles spec in mind.  An example of a dependent game would Fire Emblem Awakening which is only for the 3DS which as it use the top screen for map whilst bottom screen is used to show stats of each character at the same time. A tool that is used to make exclusives platforms would be Corona native as it is specially tailored to be for a mobile devices by Apple.

Hardware dependent software is a type of program or programming language which is designed to work on only one type of hardware. For gaming this means that particular games may only work on one device like a console. On most modern day consoles their games are incomparable with each other forcing players to purchase the same game twice if they want it on multiple consoles.

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PC gamer do not have to worry about this problem as much because almost all games are available to them and can be ported across all their PC devices, via online game platforms such as steam and Epic Launcher. Games are made to be hardware dependent because game platforms want to entice people to buy their console because of the “exclusive” games, Nintendo are a prime example of this al almost all of their games can only run on their own devices. Recently a very popular game was released on PC and due to its popularity it has subsequently been released on all major platforms, including a mobile version!

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Independent

An independent game is specifically built on multiple platforms. An example of independent games are PC games would be Call of Duty Black Ops as it able play on Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Wii, Nintendo DS, OS X and Windows
An advantage of independent games is that it allows gamers across different platforms to play games specifically made for their device. This will make the game more of a success, than compared to games that rely on one platform.
A disadvantage to these type of games is that these games must rely on being played on different platforms, which means there will be more development time and money in order to create the game on multiple platforms.
Another disadvantage would be that each platform has different controller layout. The developers will have keep in mind that each button on the control layout must be universal. E.g. PS4 controller has a touchpad, but an Xbox controller doesn’t support that feature.

interface device: game devices

Joypad
Joypads are a type of control that requires you to hold it with two hands by the handle. It is the most used and produce type of controller due it does not focus in any specific  area so most use them. It also is one of the oldest types of controllers which was first started on the NES and is still being used till today. A first person shooter that used an XBOX 360 would use the RT button to shoot, LT to throw grenades , LB to switch grenades, RB to reload, A to jump, B to melee, Y to switch guns, X to interact with vehicles, left analog stick to move, right analog stick to move the camera, dpad to moves, start to pause and select to bring up the score. Whilst in real time stratgy game on it you would use start to pause the game, select to see the score, A to select units, B to deselect, right analog to spin the camera, left analog to move the camera, dpad to navagate the menus, RB to quick select units, LB to plot a units course, RT to bring a menu, LT to move the camera qucker.

Mouse
Mouse is a type of controller that is mainly only used on a computer. Mouse are not just limited to being used for games as it is the main way for users to control the cursor.  Mouse are used in many different types of games such as in a first person shooter you would use track pad to move the camera and you would use the left click to shoot meanwhile  in a point and click adventure game you would use track pad to move the cursor and you would use the left click to interact with things.

Virtual reality devices

Human-Computer Interface

It is very important for computers to have user friendly controls because people want to navigate computer systems easily and quickly, they will become frustrated will poorly made controls which are not responsive.

ergonomic design

Ergonomics must be taken into account when designing any new product, it must be made to be comfortable for use in its environment. Modern computer equipment has to be made ergonomically because it is used for long periods of time. Technology designers have to do research into the shape of the human hand, and find the most comfortable way of resting it on a mouse or keyboard.

button configurations

In addition to having hands rest comfort of computer equipment it is also important to keep buttons and keys in easy to use places. Keyboards must follow a conventional layout so that users can use them without needing to relearn key locations. This can also be seen in gaming controllers which are specifically designed to be easy to use all of the buttons.

user-centred design

The design of new technology’s must be focus on how the user will use it. There are a number of areas which must be looked to in order to ensure a design will be easy for users to handle.

specify the context of use: Identify the people who will use the product, what they will use it for, and under what conditions they will use it.

Specify requirements: Identify any business requirements or user goals that must be met for the product to be successful.

Create design solutions: This part of the process may be done in stages, building from a rough concept to a complete design.

Evaluate designs: Evaluation – ideally through usability testing with actual users – is as integral as quality testing is to good software development.

portability

With modern smart devices such as mobile phones it has become more and more important for devices to be portable. Nowadays almost all smartphones will use a touch screen so that buttons can dynamically change with the screen and also removes the need for buttons which stick out. Devices such as the Nintendo switch have controls which are very versatile as they can be removed from the device, combined together or used separately giving users many options when playing games.

Development history

1980s

The 1980s was an exciting and scary time for early gamers as they experienced the rapid development of computer game technology as well as going through the crash of their industry and then its subsequent revival.

In the late 70s and early 80s the gaming industry was dominated by Atari and their “Video computer system” (later renamed to the Atari 2600). This was one of the first computer game consoles that was popular at home, it could play major hits such as Pac-man, Space invaders, Frogger and pitfall.

Image result for atari 2600

But the good times where not to last as in 1983 the game industry suffered a catastrophic crash which would cut home consoles sales by 97%.  There are a number of factors which caused this crash; the game industry had grown too large, to quickly to sustain itself as more and more developers released more and more rushed games. This influx of low quality game saturated the market and with a sever lack of quality control consumers felt ripped off and didn’t want to spend money on poorly made games. A perfect example of this was E.T. The Extra Terrestrial, it was crammed into a 5 week development and production cycle so that they could have a Christmas release. Around 5 million cartridges were produced for consumers who didn’t really want them game. so Atari had to throw away huge stocks of cartridges into the Mojave Desert.

Image result for et the extra terrestrial game

There was one country which did not seem to be suffering from any negative effects from the crash  in the game market, Japan. The Nintendo favicon was a huge success in japan but had trouble getting overseas because of the hysteria surrounding games consoles. One solution was to change the name to hide the fact that it was a game console, so it was called The Nintendo entertainment system.

Image result for Nintendo NES

The crash of consoles also games the PC market a chance to take the reins of the game industry as the launched aggressive advertisement campaigns to downplay the use of gaming consoles and promote the educational benefits of a PC.

A number of very important and influential game where released during the 80s the top 10 sellers are:

Rank Name Number sold
1 Super Mario bros 40.24
2 Tetris 30.26
3 Duck hunt 28.31
4 Super Mario land 18.14
5 Super Mario bros 3 17.28
6 Super Mario bros 2 7.46
7 Pac-Man 7
8 The legend of Zelda 6.51
9 Zelda II: the adventure of link 4.38
10 Excitebike 4.16

 

Sources

http://www.denofgeek.com/games/24531/the-1983-videogame-crash-what-went-wrong-and-could-it-happen-again

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980s_in_video_gaming#Best-selling_video_games_of_the_decade

1990s

The 1990s were a decade of marked innovation in video gaming. It was a decade of transition from sprite-based graphics to full-fledged 3D graphics and it gave rise to several genres of video games including, but not limited to, the first person shooter, real-time strategy, survival horror, and MMO. Handheld gaming began to become more popular throughout the decade, thanks in part to the release of the Game Boy. Arcade games, although still relatively popular in the early 1990s, begin a decline as home consoles become more common.

The release of Street Fighter 2 in 1991 is often considered as a revolutionary moment in the fighting game genre. It was considered revolutionary as it allowed players to safely execute multi button special moves, which had previously required luck in order to get right. Moreover, the game was revolutionary in the graphics department as it took advantage of Capcom’s CPS arcade chip, which allowed it to have highly detailed characters and stages. Furthermore, whilst the previous games only allowed players to play against the computer, Street Fighter 2 allowed players to play against each other.

2000s

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In 2000 the PlayStation 2 come out which introduced the first console that had two analog stick for all of their regular controllers and was Sony’s second console and used DVDs for its game. The PlayStation 2 also had backwards compatibility with the playstation. In 2001 the Sega dreamcast was discontinued due to poor sales and Sega announced that they would stop making consoles and became a third party developer. Also during 2001 the GameCube was released which was Nintendo’s fourth console and used mini DVDs for its games. In 2002 Xbox was released which was Microsoft first attempt at games console which was made to compete with PlayStation 2 and the Nintendo GameCube.  The Xbox used DVDs for their games and they were the first console to have internet services called Xbox live that was successful. In 2004 Sony introduces the PlayStation 2 Slimline which was a cheaper and smaller version of the PlayStation 2. In 2004 the Nintendo DS was introduced which was a handle console and it had two screens with one of them being a touch screen and had backwards compatibility with the GBA.

In 2004 World of Warcraft(WoW) was released which is the world biggest MMO(massively mulitplayer online game) for the PC and has 10 million subscribers. In 2005 the Xbox 360 was introduced which was the first console to have widespread implementation of HD graphics in their games. In 2006 the Nintendo Wii was introduced which was the first console to have motion controls which allowed the user use their whole body to play and had backwards compatibility with the GameCube. In 2006 the sequel to the PlayStation 2 was released called the PlayStation 3 which had an internet service called PlayStation Network. Many arcade machines were fighting games such Marvel vs Capcom 2 which would then get a console release at later date.

Image result for marvel vs capcom 2 arcade machine

2010s

2010s is the current decade of video gaming which was dominated by seventh generation consoles, such as Xbox 360, the PlayStation 3 and Wii. Each console brought ground breaking technologies. Xbox 360 rendered HD resolutions and PlayStation implemented Blu-ray player into their console. Nintendo focused on mobility and interaction.

Handheld gaming in the eighth generation was dominated primarily by the Nintendo 3DS and the PlayStation Vita. The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld video game console, released in Japan February 2011, where they presented autostereoscopic 3D to produce a glasses-free interface for 3D.

The 2D PlayStation Vita was released in December 2012 in Japan. It has a 5-inch OLED multi touch front screen and a rear touch pad, two analog sticks, 3G and WiFi connection, Sixaxis control and 3-axis electronic compass.

Nintendo announced their next generation console, unveiling of the Wii U at E3 2011, the successor to the Wii. The Wii U was released in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand in November 2012 and in Japan the following month.

Microsoft and Sony announced their new gaming platforms in the eighth generation in 2013.The fourth home console in Sony’s PlayStation series, ‘PlayStation 4’ was launched on November 15, 2013 in North America and in Europe, and was later launched on February 22, 2014 in Japan. This gaming console was a massive improvement compared to the previous console PS3. The PlayStation 4 include 8 GB of RAM memory and a faster Blu-ray drive. The Xbox One was the successor to the Xbox 360, which was launched on November 22, 2013 worldwide.  Microsoft wanted to implement strict controls over game resale and DRM controls, but later changed their mind due to public backlash