Arcade controls

DDR (dance dance revolution) was made in 1999 and changed the way that users play games with the use of new controls. DDR was a game where users had to follow arrows on a screen and match them by pressing on the correct arrow. This was done with the use sensors that tracked what button was being pressed on. DDR was a popular game in Japan until it became more competitive and came over to western audiences. The popular aspect of this game and controller scheme was that it relied on fast reaction and to some sense a form of physical finance to stay in time. This was not seen from games of the time. It saw the owner of the game Konami double their net income. This was mostly down to the simplicity of the controls and the fact that the game was safe for all audiences.


Later into the 2000s racing games started to be popular this was due to the use of racing wheels that gave the user a level of realism that was not seen before with the use of basic joystick controls. Wangan Midnight MAXIMUM TUNE 5 was one of the games that included this type of control. As well as this some system included a gear stick and foot pedals. This was an early simulation experience.


The invention of the joystick was in 1910 in England. However, it was only used in games from the early 70s with notable games like space race. This allowed the player to used two joysticks with one to make the character go left and right and a second to make the character go up and down. This was revolutionary at the time as before player where only restricted to one axis of movement. This allowed a more enjoyable experience with more user freedom. This was later improved in the 80s when Pac man came out. This combined the two joysticks into one creating an easier player experience. This could be done with the improvement of circuits so the game easily knew what direction the joystick was.

pac man

Popular Arcade games

Some of the most popular arcade games from the 70’s on PacManwards

  • Pong(1972)
  • Space Invaders(1978)
  • PacMan(1980)
  • Ms PacMan(1981)
  • Donkey Kong(1981)
  • Mortal Combat(1992)
  • Tetris(1984)


Pong is considered the first arcade game, it was released in 1972. Pong is a simple 2D tennis game, it was published and developed by Atari.

Pong Arcade Machine
Pong Arcade Machine




Space invaders:

Space invaders was played from a table top arcade machine which required you to enter a certain amount of money before you could play. The original space invaders is a single player game.


Originally released in japan on may 22nd 1980 by Namco in Japan and was later released in North America on October 26th 1980

Pac Man Bug
Pac Man Arcade Machine

You play as a yellow circle, there are 255 levels, there would be more but a bug makes it impossible to progress any further. You were unable to go over 999,990 points, if you were to go that score the game will only keep the final 6 digits of the score.




Donkey Kong:

Donkey Kong in game
Donkey Kong in game
Donkey Kong Arcade Machine
Donkey Kong Arcade Machine

First released by Nintendo in 1981, Donkey Kong is a platform game, where the player has to dodge various obstacles thrown by Donkey Kong. you play as “JumpMan” who would later become Mario. By 1982 Nintendo had managed to 60,000 units and make $180,000,000





Released in 1984 by Alexey Pajitnov, the name Tetris is a mixture of the greek word of “tetra” and Alexey’s favourite sport Tennis, the game is the first game to be released from the Soviet union, The game was first released on the Electronika 60 which was made within the Soviet Union. Tetris is Nintendo’s 6th best selling game for the NES

Original Tetris
Original Tetris

Original Tetris theme ^^^^











Nowadays there are many online games which users are able to play on their PCs either by themselves or even with their friends.. There are now online gaming shops where users are able to buy online games, where they are able to play with other users or even their friends.

Some example of some markets where people are able to buy online or even offline game are sites/ apps are :

Steam: Steam is a digital distribution platform developed by Valve Corporation, which offers digital rights management, multiplayer gaming, video streaming and social networking services, which was released on 12 September 2003.


G2A : global digital marketplace which specializes in gaming products. It is headquartered in Hong Kong, but has offices in various countries including Poland, the Netherlands and China which was founded back 2010.



Some popular online games

World Of World craft:World of Warcraft is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game released in 2004. World of Warcraft was is the third best selling PC game, selling 14 million copies.

League of Legends:League of Legends is a multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by Riot Games, which was released back in  27th October 2009. 32.5 million copies of League of Legend have been downloaded.


Counter-Strike Global Offensive:Counter-Strike: Global Offensive is a multiplayer first-person shooter video game developed by Hidden Path Entertainment and Valve Corporation, which was released on 21 August 2012. CS-GO sold 25 million copies each one costing £11.99 which equates to £300,000,000.

Platforms for CS-GO: Microsoft Windows, Xbox One, Macintosh operating systems, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Linux


Overwatch: Overwatch is a team-based multiplayer online first-person shooter video game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment. It was released in May 2016 for Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One which was released on 24 May 2016.



Development history


The 1980s was an exciting and scary time for early gamers as they experienced the rapid development of computer game technology as well as going through the crash of their industry and then its subsequent revival.

In the late 70s and early 80s the gaming industry was dominated by Atari and their “Video computer system” (later renamed to the Atari 2600). This was one of the first computer game consoles that was popular at home, it could play major hits such as Pac-man, Space invaders, Frogger and pitfall.

Image result for atari 2600

But the good times where not to last as in 1983 the game industry suffered a catastrophic crash which would cut home consoles sales by 97%.  There are a number of factors which caused this crash; the game industry had grown too large, to quickly to sustain itself as more and more developers released more and more rushed games. This influx of low quality game saturated the market and with a sever lack of quality control consumers felt ripped off and didn’t want to spend money on poorly made games. A perfect example of this was E.T. The Extra Terrestrial, it was crammed into a 5 week development and production cycle so that they could have a Christmas release. Around 5 million cartridges were produced for consumers who didn’t really want them game. so Atari had to throw away huge stocks of cartridges into the Mojave Desert.

Image result for et the extra terrestrial game

There was one country which did not seem to be suffering from any negative effects from the crash  in the game market, Japan. The Nintendo favicon was a huge success in japan but had trouble getting overseas because of the hysteria surrounding games consoles. One solution was to change the name to hide the fact that it was a game console, so it was called The Nintendo entertainment system.

Image result for Nintendo NES

The crash of consoles also games the PC market a chance to take the reins of the game industry as the launched aggressive advertisement campaigns to downplay the use of gaming consoles and promote the educational benefits of a PC.

A number of very important and influential game where released during the 80s the top 10 sellers are:

Rank Name Number sold
1 Super Mario bros 40.24
2 Tetris 30.26
3 Duck hunt 28.31
4 Super Mario land 18.14
5 Super Mario bros 3 17.28
6 Super Mario bros 2 7.46
7 Pac-Man 7
8 The legend of Zelda 6.51
9 Zelda II: the adventure of link 4.38
10 Excitebike 4.16




The 1990s were a decade of marked innovation in video gaming. It was a decade of transition from sprite-based graphics to full-fledged 3D graphics and it gave rise to several genres of video games including, but not limited to, the first person shooter, real-time strategy, survival horror, and MMO. Handheld gaming began to become more popular throughout the decade, thanks in part to the release of the Game Boy. Arcade games, although still relatively popular in the early 1990s, begin a decline as home consoles become more common.

The release of Street Fighter 2 in 1991 is often considered as a revolutionary moment in the fighting game genre. It was considered revolutionary as it allowed players to safely execute multi button special moves, which had previously required luck in order to get right. Moreover, the game was revolutionary in the graphics department as it took advantage of Capcom’s CPS arcade chip, which allowed it to have highly detailed characters and stages. Furthermore, whilst the previous games only allowed players to play against the computer, Street Fighter 2 allowed players to play against each other.




In 2000 the PlayStation 2 come out which introduced the first console that had two analog stick for all of their regular controllers and was Sony’s second console and used DVDs for its game. The PlayStation 2 also had backwards compatibility with the playstation. In 2001 the Sega dreamcast was discontinued due to poor sales and Sega announced that they would stop making consoles and became a third party developer. Also during 2001 the GameCube was released which was Nintendo’s fourth console and used mini DVDs for its games. In 2002 Xbox was released which was Microsoft first attempt at games console which was made to compete with PlayStation 2 and the Nintendo GameCube.  The Xbox used DVDs for their games and they were the first console to have internet services called Xbox live that was successful. In 2004 Sony introduces the PlayStation 2 Slimline which was a cheaper and smaller version of the PlayStation 2. In 2004 the Nintendo DS was introduced which was a handle console and it had two screens with one of them being a touch screen and had backwards compatibility with the GBA.

In 2004 World of Warcraft(WoW) was released which is the world biggest MMO(massively mulitplayer online game) for the PC and has 10 million subscribers. In 2005 the Xbox 360 was introduced which was the first console to have widespread implementation of HD graphics in their games. In 2006 the Nintendo Wii was introduced which was the first console to have motion controls which allowed the user use their whole body to play and had backwards compatibility with the GameCube. In 2006 the sequel to the PlayStation 2 was released called the PlayStation 3 which had an internet service called PlayStation Network. Many arcade machines were fighting games such Marvel vs Capcom 2 which would then get a console release at later date.

Image result for marvel vs capcom 2 arcade machine


2010s is the current decade of video gaming which was dominated by seventh generation consoles, such as Xbox 360, the PlayStation 3 and Wii. Each console brought ground breaking technologies. Xbox 360 rendered HD resolutions and PlayStation implemented Blu-ray player into their console. Nintendo focused on mobility and interaction.

Handheld gaming in the eighth generation was dominated primarily by the Nintendo 3DS and the PlayStation Vita. The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld video game console, released in Japan February 2011, where they presented autostereoscopic 3D to produce a glasses-free interface for 3D.

The 2D PlayStation Vita was released in December 2012 in Japan. It has a 5-inch OLED multi touch front screen and a rear touch pad, two analog sticks, 3G and WiFi connection, Sixaxis control and 3-axis electronic compass.

Nintendo announced their next generation console, unveiling of the Wii U at E3 2011, the successor to the Wii. The Wii U was released in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand in November 2012 and in Japan the following month.

Microsoft and Sony announced their new gaming platforms in the eighth generation in 2013.The fourth home console in Sony’s PlayStation series, ‘PlayStation 4’ was launched on November 15, 2013 in North America and in Europe, and was later launched on February 22, 2014 in Japan. This gaming console was a massive improvement compared to the previous console PS3. The PlayStation 4 include 8 GB of RAM memory and a faster Blu-ray drive. The Xbox One was the successor to the Xbox 360, which was launched on November 22, 2013 worldwide.  Microsoft wanted to implement strict controls over game resale and DRM controls, but later changed their mind due to public backlash




If you’re a serious enough gamer to be thinking about buying a new TV along with a new Xbox One or PlayStation 4, or even if you’re waiting, you should know about TV input lag.

That’s the term for the delay, in milliseconds, between a TV receiving a signal and the results of that signal appearing on the screen. Those milliseconds are irrelevant for TV shows and movies, and they don’t even matter for most games — the majority of gamers probably wouldn’t even notice if their TV was laggy. But if you’re an attentive, skilled gamer, especially one who plays “twitch” games like Call of Duty, Halo, or fighting games, especially in online multiplayer environments, input lag can mean the difference between virtual life and death.

Computer Games and Platforms


Computer game development is a collaborative process involving multi-disciplinary teams. Game designers should have a full understanding of the capabilities and benefits of the different hardware platforms (such as PCs, consoles and mobile devices) as well as familiarity with software technologies and techniques appropriate to each platform. Sound knowledge of contemporary game hardware platforms, as well as the latest software technology, is highly desirable when seeking a career in this industry.
Game designers must be able to communicate their vision to artists, programmers, producers, marketing staff, and others involved in the development process, be able to offer constructive criticism on the work of others and accept feedback on their own work. Each person entering this industry needs to have a basic awareness of the systems used to support gameplay, and have some grasp of how today’s sophisticated interactive games have been enabled by hardware and software developments. In this way a common agreed language can be established for the interchange of the technical and marketing considerations of every game design.
For any job in the industry, good technical knowledge is required, with awareness of the various game platforms and technologies. In order to communicate effectively with others, it is necessary to understand the technical language used to describe elements of game systems, and be able to recognise the limitations inherent in the destination platform selected for any game. To avoid making impossible demands of the specified platform, those working in the industry must be aware of the function and purpose of each component of the modern interactive game system.
Game systems are dedicated computers, requiring software instructions to organise their processing. Different platforms have particular programming requirements. In this unit learners will have opportunities to examine the features and limitations of the basic software employed in typical game platforms.
The games industry is constantly evolving, both creatively and technologically, and it is important that learnerskeep up to date with the latest developments. This unit encourages not only the study of hardware and software technologies, but also the combination of these components into playable systems for use by single players and interactively among teams.

Football: Valuable Etiquette tips for the game

Football: Valuable Etiquette tips for the game

Football fans all over the world have mostly same tradition of the game watching, it includes much fun with lots of beer, food, talks. So, what about you? Maybe you prefer to stay at home watching the match, making predictions with Flashlivescore? Or if you go somewhere, what is the best way to get along with people supporting the opposite squad? Do you usually bring something with you to the parties? Do you have to be careful with the topics of your conversations with the other companies? Let’s look through the tips which an International etiquette expert, one of the authors, of Protocol & Etiquette Worldwide, has kindly shared with us:

Never Come Empty-Handed: You may ask the host in advance if there’s anything special she may need. Also, don’t forget to bring a special gift for the hostess.

Arrive Dead on Time: Time is money! Come 10-15 minutes after the beginning of the party and leave it 20-30 minutes before the party finishes. The worst thing is to the dawdler who’s last to leave.

Behave Courteously: If you suddenly became upset by something, don’t try to show it to the people around you. Compose yourself and continue entertaining. It’s not the right place to be a Debbie Downer.

Don’t Get Out of Line at the Cafeteria: Mind that overloading the plate is pre-condemned. And if you touched something on the buffet, take it straight to your plate, and do not double-touch it.

Don’t Take Liberties with Drinks: You might probably know that it is not desirable to drink on an empty stomach. Take a slow pace with your alcohol cocktails or beer. And when the bartender says that the alcohol is finished, do respect it and take some water or juice.

Main Talks Topic is Sports: We all know why we have gathered at that place – football game of the favourite team. Football is the issue. So don’t be off-topic. Speak about the squad, the coachwork, free betting predictions, previous games reviews, etc. But please nopolitics and religion, business issues.

Be Grateful: Send a handwritten note within the 24-48 hours. The host will definitely value you taking the time to say thanks to him or her.

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Watch Competitions Easily at Flashlivescore

Watch Competitions Easily at Flashlivescore

Do you love football and want to always be aware of the latest news? Then, the sports statistics website is exactly what you need. It offers only the latest and reliable information that comes from all over the world.

This year, the attention of fans is turned to Turin Juventus has significantly increased. This is not surprising, because in the Old Signora now has Cristiano Ronaldo, with who the club’s chances of triumph in the international arena increased significantly. Juventus has already been considered as one of the favorites due to the fact that the team has an excellent and balanced lineup.

In fact, Allegri can field completely different lineups for in the matches of Serie A and the Champions League, and this will not affect the results of the club. Only a few clubs have such luxury, so Bianco-Neri rightly considered as one of the main contenders for victory in the Champions League.

You can always follow the success of Juventus and its competitors at Flashlivescore.ORG, where you can find not only online results, but detailed statistics of competitions, too.

At the same time, attention is paid not only to the top competitions. The professionals focus of the local tournaments, for example, Serie D. The information is always updated in real time, which is also an additional advantage.

Juventus Chances of Winning Champions League

Now the Old Signora is one of the main contenders for the victory in the tournament bbc football live scores. However, the match against Manchester United at the group stage showed that excessive confidence can be negative, and the team might have to paying for it.

Among the trump cards of Juventus are:

A long bench. Due to this, the coach can make quick rotation and to give the leaders some rest. Given that the season is very long and intense, this can be a decisive advantage.
Individual skills of the players. Here, not only Ronaldo is able to decide the fate of the confrontation alone, although the Portuguese has already become the best scorer of the team. Dibala, Mandzukic and Pjanic Douglas Costa, too. All of them are able to decide the fate of the episode in favor of the Old Signora.

Motivation of the leaders. For many of them it is one of the last chances to become the winner of the most prestigious club tournament of the Old Continent.

Now the team has a balance between attack and defense. This could be Juventus’ trump credit card and allow the group to lastly earn the Champions League.

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German Bundesliga Standings

German Bundesliga Standings

This season, events in the German Bundesliga are developing very rapidly. The leaders are quickly rotating, and as a result the championship is becoming even more interesting for millions of fans from all over the world.

For the past 6 years, Bayern from Munich was the champion of Germany, but this season it will be extremely difficult for Niko Kovac’s squad to defend its title. First, the team’s progress has stopped. The top players are leaving its lineup, and those who stayed become more mature, therefore they no longer show the game for which the fans loved them before.

But the most important thing is the progress of competitors; first of all, Borussia. This summer, Dortmund team changed their coach, too, which played into their hands. It is proved by the results not only in the domestic, but also in the international arena.

The factors that helped Borussia to reach a brand new level include:

Appointment of an experienced coach. Lucien Favre was known before thanks to his work with minor teams. Borussia is a club that fully corresponds to his ambitions.
Successful transfer campaign of the Bumblebees. Despite the loss of a number of leaders (Castro, Yarmolenko, Schurrle), the team was able to make successful signing, too. First of all, it is Witsel and Alcacer. The latter is already scoring for the new team, so that at a certain stage the club even managed to lead the standings.
Instability of competitors led by Bayern. Other Bundesliga clubs can mix successful series with failures, which is why it is premier league tempo reale especially difficult to predict the development of events in the German championship.
You can always learn bundesliga standings at the website of sports statistics.

Borussia Chances Of Winning The Title

Now, Favre’s players show bright and attacking soccer, which attracts millions of fans. However, it is a big question whether it will be possible to show such a game over a long tournament distance. The fans are also worried by the fact that the team’s bench is not deep enough, so if things are not in favor of the Bumblebees, then it will be quite difficult for them to turn events around.

The starting period has already passed, so it’s absolutely impossible to stop at what has been achieved by now, especially since the fans of Borussia missed trophies. Now, the team has a great opportunity to use Bayern’s misfires to finally earn the Andlsquo;Silver Greens BowlAndrsquo;.

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