Consoles

Modern Consoles

Nintendo Switch – Developed by Nintendo, the Nintendo Switch is both a console and a handheld portable console. the Switch has a built-in screen with a video output of 720p but can go up to 1080p on a TV. For its CPU it uses an NVIDIA Custom Tegra processor. Some of its limitations is that it has low battery life that lasts up to around 6 hours.

Xbox One – Developed by Microsoft, Xbox One is a console that has a 500 GB hard drive and uses a 8 core AMD custom CPU and also uses cloud storage to improve performance. The problem that people have with the Xbox One is that it has is that user’s activities are shared constantly so, Xbox doesn’t have good privacy settings.

PS4 – Developed by SONY, PS4 is the console rivaling Xbox One, it also has a hard drive of 500GB but does have a 1TB option. The PS4 uses an AMD Jaguar 8 cores processor. The PS4 also has a 1080p video output and supports 4K.

WiiU – Developed by Nintendo, The Wii U released in 2012 it uses a IBM Power multi-core processor with AMD graphics. Games on the Wii U can both be played on the TV or on the Wii U game pad which makes the Wii U  semi portable. Its limitation is that the portability of the console is limited to range like when the game pad is too far away from the console it will disconnect the user from the game.

Older Consoles by the Current Companies.

XBOX 360 – Developed by Microsoft
PS3 – Developed by SONY
Wii – Developed by Nintendo

XBOX – Developed by Microsoft
PS2 – Developed by SONY
Gamecube – Developed by Nintendo

PlayStation – Developed by SONY
Nintendo 64 – Developed by Nintendo

Handheld Portable  Consoles

PSVita – Developed by SONY
Nintendo 3DS – Developed by Nintendo
PSP – Developed by SONY
Nintendo DS – Developed by Nintendo
Gameboy Advanced SP – Developed by Nintendo
Gameboy Colour – Developed by Nintendo
Nintendo Gameboy – Developed by Nintendo

Time Lines of both Consoles and Portable Consoles.

Console Timeline Portable Console timeline

Mobile Telecommunications Device Games Group Composition

Old vs New Phone
Old vs New Phone

Handheld Mobile Devices

Mobile gaming has come a long way. Over the past few years we’ve gone from simple distractions like SnakeWords With Friends and Doodle Jump to full-on narrative experiences crafted specifically for Android and iOS devices. What’s more, at least a few traditional console game developers have shifted entirely to mobile at this point, and, in a bit of a reversal, they’ve ported their games to consoles. By 2012, game-design tool sets like Unity and Unreal made a charming indie designed for mobile devices indistinguishable from one you’d play on a PlayStation or Xbox. As such, for the purposes of this list, we’re focusing on games that have been released within the past five years. There is a growing market in mobile gaming and continues to grow in conjunction through the development of console games.

Mobile Phone Timeline
Mobile Phone Timeline

As seen in the time line above the use of mobile phones have come along way. Back in 1983, there were mobile phones but they are too heavy and bulky to carry around let alone game on them. They did not have the technology and the user interface to have some serious and small games on it. Moving onto late 90’s and early 2000’s the break through in small mobile gaming came along such as the very popular “snake” game which is still popular in some nostalgic people. As time moves on, the technology advancements is mind blowing such as better graphics, bigger screens and faster processors have allowed for better development of games. Companies such as Apple and Android have developed app stores to allow for developers of games to create their own mobile game which is good and publish them on the app stores for people to play.

Snake

Snake VS Angry Birds
Snake VS Angry Birds

The two images above show how far games have come. Both games are played on mobile devices but look very different graphically. As seen in the image with the Nokia “Snake” was a stand out integrated game which many people played in their spare time. To this day people do play this game for a trip down memory lane. It it a pixel based game where you have to control a snake and get it as big as possible within a confined space. With Angry Birds, it is more complicated as you have to fire the birds via slingshot and aim for the pigs in order to progress onto the next level. Even with this brief description, the Angry Birds game sounds more complex as there is levels and you have more than one objective which is good.

GSM

GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz frequency band. This allow for online gaming perhaps and being able to connect to the internet to play against other players or games that are based off of servers such as world wide popular Clash Of Clans which in which internet connection is need in order to play the game.

3gpp

3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaborative project aimed at developing globally acceptable specifications for third generation (3G) mobile systems.The 3GPP caters to a large majority of the telecommunications networks in the world. It is the standard body behind UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System), which is the 3G upgrade of GSM. Most cellular networks on the planet are based on GSM. This is an evolution of GSM, this is more reliable and faster when having access to the internet and is used on mobile phones during this modern day. 4G has now been released and is said to be faster than a standard 3G connection so it can be better for gaming which is good on mobile devices.

Mobile Gaming Limitations

  • Some games cost money to download of the app stores.
  • Have to download the game to be able to play it.
  • Lag and advertisements within the game with may cause irritation to the use.
  • Not all phones support flash e.g. some windows phones.

Mobile – Limitations

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Mobile games have to deal with a number of limitations, due to the platform they are being developed for. Often times mobile games are much smaller in scope than games for other platforms, and if said games are being ported to phone then they usually need to be scaled down. This has always been the case for mobile games – due to the small and portable nature of their hardware.

Processor

Due to their size, phones are not able to include and make use of the fastest and most powerful tech available to the modern world of gaming. This is the case for all mobile components, but most importantly the processor. The processor is the part of a computer/phone that processes all commands and its speed will determine how fast applications (such as games) can run.

Mobile games cannot handle as complex games and calculations, due to their processor limitations, therefore they are much more simplistic in nature.

Screen / Input

The screen is another limitation of mobile phone games, it not only acts as the display to render graphics, but also as the standard method of input for phone apps. Compared to consoles and PCs a phone is much more limited in its input, as it must use virtual controls (those that appear on screen – responding to touches).

Graphics

Finally, the graphics are another area of limitation. Processing graphics is currently the most intensive aspect of any game. As a result, phones – with their simplistic hardware – cannot handle modern graphics. Usually they will have to be simplified to run acceptable, and appear nicely on the smaller scale phone screens.

Console Timeline

Games consoles have evolved throughout time to handle a variety of different capabilities. This includes handling TV streaming, 3D games, and much more.

Some consoles from generation 7/8 have evolved to act as less of dedicated console, and more as a home entertainment device.

Generation One – 1972

  • Console
    * Magnavox Odyssey
    * Epoch TVTennis
    * Home Pong
    * Binatone TV Master
    * Coleco Telstar
    * Color TV-Game

Generation Two – 1976

  • Console
    * Fairchild Channel F
    * Atari 2600
    * Bally Astrocade
    * Magnavox Odyssey
    * Intellivision
  • Handheld
    * Game * Watch
    * Milton Bradley Microvision
    * Epoch Game Pocket Computer

Generation Three – 1983

  • Console
    * SG-1000
    * NES
    * Master System
    * Atari 7800
    * Commodore 64

Generation Four – 1987

  • Console
    * PC-Engine
    * Genesis
    * SNES
    * Neo Geo AES
  • Handheld
    * GB
    * Lynx
    * Game Gear
    * TurboExpress

Generation Five – 1993

  • Console
    * FW Towns Marty
    * 3DO Interactive
    * Atari Jaguar
    * Saturn
    * PS
    * N64
  • Handheld
    * Nomad
    * Virtual Boy
    * GB
    * GBC
    * Neo Geo
    * Game.com

Generation Six – 1998

  • Console
    * Dreamcast
    * PS2
    * GameCube
    * Xbox
  • Handheld
    * GBA
    * N-Gage
    * Tripwave Zodiac

Generation Seven – 2005

  • Console
    * Xbox 360
    * PS3
    * Wii
  • Handheld
    * DS
    * PSP

Generation Eight – 2012

  • Console
    * PS4
    * Xbox One
    * WiiU
  • Handheld
    * 3DS
    * PSVita

PC – Limitations

Hardware

A limitation of PC gaming is the hardware, every few years games become more demanding and hardware becomes outdated.  This means that there is a need to purchase new hardware every few years if you wish to stay up-to-date with the best hardware available.

A lot of the time games are built for consoles and then ported onto PC, this means that console players don’t have to worry about their consoles being able to run games. On the other hand, PC gamers have to purchase hardware powerful enough to run the games, which means that if a new games comes out and your system is not powerful enough, you won’t be able to play it optimally.

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Drivers

In order for PC gamers to use their graphics card optimally, they must keep up-to-date with their drivers. However, with drivers sometimes comes unexpected problems which can impact the player’s experience.  For example, there can be driver crashes with some driver iterations and certain graphics cards. Another problem could be bad performance with certain drivers on games. This means that some people cannot play certain games due to limitations from drivers.

Cost

Cost can be a major limitation to PC gaming, some computer systems can cost upwards of £2000 in order to have all the top-end hardware in them. This would be a lot more powerful than consoles, but this might be the price to pay in order to future proof the computer system for future games, the same way consoles run games until a new console comes out.

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Arcade Game History

The first popular “arcade games” included early amusement-park midway games such as shooting galleries, ball-toss games, and the earliest coin-operated machines, such as those that claimed to tell a person’s fortune or that played mechanical music. The old Midways of 1920s-era amusement parks (such as Coney Island in New York) provided the inspiration and atmosphere for later arcade games. In the 1930s the first coin-operated pinball machines emerged. They lacked plungers or lit-up bonus surfaces on the playing field, and used mechanical instead of electronic scoring-readouts. By around 1977 most pinball machines in production switched to using solid-state electronics both for operation and for scoring.

Electro-mechanical games

In 1966, Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope – an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine. It became an instant success in Japan, Europe, and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. In 1967, Taito released an electro-mechanical arcade game of their own, Crown Soccer Special, a two-player sports game that simulated association football, using various electronic components, including electronic versions of pinball flippers.

Continue reading Arcade Game History

Arcade controls

DDR (dance dance revolution) was made in 1999 and changed the way that users play games with the use of new controls. DDR was a game where users had to follow arrows on a screen and match them by pressing on the correct arrow. This was done with the use sensors that tracked what button was being pressed on. DDR was a popular game in Japan until it became more competitive and came over to western audiences. The popular aspect of this game and controller scheme was that it relied on fast reaction and to some sense a form of physical finance to stay in time. This was not seen from games of the time. It saw the owner of the game Konami double their net income. This was mostly down to the simplicity of the controls and the fact that the game was safe for all audiences.

DDR

Later into the 2000s racing games started to be popular this was due to the use of racing wheels that gave the user a level of realism that was not seen before with the use of basic joystick controls. Wangan Midnight MAXIMUM TUNE 5 was one of the games that included this type of control. As well as this some system included a gear stick and foot pedals. This was an early simulation experience.

Wangan-Midnight_arcade

The invention of the joystick was in 1910 in England. However, it was only used in games from the early 70s with notable games like space race. This allowed the player to used two joysticks with one to make the character go left and right and a second to make the character go up and down. This was revolutionary at the time as before player where only restricted to one axis of movement. This allowed a more enjoyable experience with more user freedom. This was later improved in the 80s when Pac man came out. This combined the two joysticks into one creating an easier player experience. This could be done with the improvement of circuits so the game easily knew what direction the joystick was.

pac man

Popular Arcade games

Some of the most popular arcade games from the 70’s on PacManwards

  • Pong(1972)
  • Space Invaders(1978)
  • PacMan(1980)
  • Ms PacMan(1981)
  • Donkey Kong(1981)
  • Mortal Combat(1992)
  • Tetris(1984)

Pong:

Pong is considered the first arcade game, it was released in 1972. Pong is a simple 2D tennis game, it was published and developed by Atari.

Pong Arcade Machine
Pong Arcade Machine

 

 

 

Space invaders:

Space invaders was played from a table top arcade machine which required you to enter a certain amount of money before you could play. The original space invaders is a single player game.
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Pac-Man:

Originally released in japan on may 22nd 1980 by Namco in Japan and was later released in North America on October 26th 1980

Pac-Man_split-screen_kill_screen
Pac Man Bug
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Pac Man Arcade Machine

You play as a yellow circle, there are 255 levels, there would be more but a bug makes it impossible to progress any further. You were unable to go over 999,990 points, if you were to go that score the game will only keep the final 6 digits of the score.

 

 

 

Donkey Kong:

Donkey Kong in game
Donkey Kong in game
Donkey Kong Arcade Machine
Donkey Kong Arcade Machine

First released by Nintendo in 1981, Donkey Kong is a platform game, where the player has to dodge various obstacles thrown by Donkey Kong. you play as “JumpMan” who would later become Mario. By 1982 Nintendo had managed to 60,000 units and make $180,000,000

 

 

 

 

Tetris:
NES_Tetris_Box_Front
Released in 1984 by Alexey Pajitnov, the name Tetris is a mixture of the greek word of “tetra” and Alexey’s favourite sport Tennis, the game is the first game to be released from the Soviet union, The game was first released on the Electronika 60 which was made within the Soviet Union. Tetris is Nintendo’s 6th best selling game for the NES

Original Tetris
Original Tetris

Original Tetris theme ^^^^

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PC

Online:

Nowadays there are many online games which users are able to play on their PCs either by themselves or even with their friends.. There are now online gaming shops where users are able to buy online games, where they are able to play with other users or even their friends.

Some example of some markets where people are able to buy online or even offline game are sites/ apps are :

Steam: Steam is a digital distribution platform developed by Valve Corporation, which offers digital rights management, multiplayer gaming, video streaming and social networking services, which was released on 12 September 2003.

Steam

G2A : global digital marketplace which specializes in gaming products. It is headquartered in Hong Kong, but has offices in various countries including Poland, the Netherlands and China which was founded back 2010.

 

download

Some popular online games

World Of World craft:World of Warcraft is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game released in 2004. World of Warcraft was is the third best selling PC game, selling 14 million copies.

League of Legends:League of Legends is a multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published by Riot Games, which was released back in  27th October 2009. 32.5 million copies of League of Legend have been downloaded.

patch-notes-banner-3

Counter-Strike Global Offensive:Counter-Strike: Global Offensive is a multiplayer first-person shooter video game developed by Hidden Path Entertainment and Valve Corporation, which was released on 21 August 2012. CS-GO sold 25 million copies each one costing £11.99 which equates to £300,000,000.

Platforms for CS-GO: Microsoft Windows, Xbox One, Macintosh operating systems, Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Linux

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Overwatch: Overwatch is a team-based multiplayer online first-person shooter video game developed and published by Blizzard Entertainment. It was released in May 2016 for Windows, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One which was released on 24 May 2016.

 

 

Development history

1980s

The 1980s was an exciting and scary time for early gamers as they experienced the rapid development of computer game technology as well as going through the crash of their industry and then its subsequent revival.

In the late 70s and early 80s the gaming industry was dominated by Atari and their “Video computer system” (later renamed to the Atari 2600). This was one of the first computer game consoles that was popular at home, it could play major hits such as Pac-man, Space invaders, Frogger and pitfall.

Image result for atari 2600

But the good times where not to last as in 1983 the game industry suffered a catastrophic crash which would cut home consoles sales by 97%.  There are a number of factors which caused this crash; the game industry had grown too large, to quickly to sustain itself as more and more developers released more and more rushed games. This influx of low quality game saturated the market and with a sever lack of quality control consumers felt ripped off and didn’t want to spend money on poorly made games. A perfect example of this was E.T. The Extra Terrestrial, it was crammed into a 5 week development and production cycle so that they could have a Christmas release. Around 5 million cartridges were produced for consumers who didn’t really want them game. so Atari had to throw away huge stocks of cartridges into the Mojave Desert.

Image result for et the extra terrestrial game

There was one country which did not seem to be suffering from any negative effects from the crash  in the game market, Japan. The Nintendo favicon was a huge success in japan but had trouble getting overseas because of the hysteria surrounding games consoles. One solution was to change the name to hide the fact that it was a game console, so it was called The Nintendo entertainment system.

Image result for Nintendo NES

The crash of consoles also games the PC market a chance to take the reins of the game industry as the launched aggressive advertisement campaigns to downplay the use of gaming consoles and promote the educational benefits of a PC.

A number of very important and influential game where released during the 80s the top 10 sellers are:

Rank Name Number sold
1 Super Mario bros 40.24
2 Tetris 30.26
3 Duck hunt 28.31
4 Super Mario land 18.14
5 Super Mario bros 3 17.28
6 Super Mario bros 2 7.46
7 Pac-Man 7
8 The legend of Zelda 6.51
9 Zelda II: the adventure of link 4.38
10 Excitebike 4.16

 

Sources

http://www.denofgeek.com/games/24531/the-1983-videogame-crash-what-went-wrong-and-could-it-happen-again

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980s_in_video_gaming#Best-selling_video_games_of_the_decade

1990s

The 1990s were a decade of marked innovation in video gaming. It was a decade of transition from sprite-based graphics to full-fledged 3D graphics and it gave rise to several genres of video games including, but not limited to, the first person shooter, real-time strategy, survival horror, and MMO. Handheld gaming began to become more popular throughout the decade, thanks in part to the release of the Game Boy. Arcade games, although still relatively popular in the early 1990s, begin a decline as home consoles become more common.

The release of Street Fighter 2 in 1991 is often considered as a revolutionary moment in the fighting game genre. It was considered revolutionary as it allowed players to safely execute multi button special moves, which had previously required luck in order to get right. Moreover, the game was revolutionary in the graphics department as it took advantage of Capcom’s CPS arcade chip, which allowed it to have highly detailed characters and stages. Furthermore, whilst the previous games only allowed players to play against the computer, Street Fighter 2 allowed players to play against each other.

2000s

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In 2000 the PlayStation 2 come out which introduced the first console that had two analog stick for all of their regular controllers and was Sony’s second console and used DVDs for its game. The PlayStation 2 also had backwards compatibility with the playstation. In 2001 the Sega dreamcast was discontinued due to poor sales and Sega announced that they would stop making consoles and became a third party developer. Also during 2001 the GameCube was released which was Nintendo’s fourth console and used mini DVDs for its games. In 2002 Xbox was released which was Microsoft first attempt at games console which was made to compete with PlayStation 2 and the Nintendo GameCube.  The Xbox used DVDs for their games and they were the first console to have internet services called Xbox live that was successful. In 2004 Sony introduces the PlayStation 2 Slimline which was a cheaper and smaller version of the PlayStation 2. In 2004 the Nintendo DS was introduced which was a handle console and it had two screens with one of them being a touch screen and had backwards compatibility with the GBA.

In 2004 World of Warcraft(WoW) was released which is the world biggest MMO(massively mulitplayer online game) for the PC and has 10 million subscribers. In 2005 the Xbox 360 was introduced which was the first console to have widespread implementation of HD graphics in their games. In 2006 the Nintendo Wii was introduced which was the first console to have motion controls which allowed the user use their whole body to play and had backwards compatibility with the GameCube. In 2006 the sequel to the PlayStation 2 was released called the PlayStation 3 which had an internet service called PlayStation Network. Many arcade machines were fighting games such Marvel vs Capcom 2 which would then get a console release at later date.

Image result for marvel vs capcom 2 arcade machine

2010s

2010s is the current decade of video gaming which was dominated by seventh generation consoles, such as Xbox 360, the PlayStation 3 and Wii. Each console brought ground breaking technologies. Xbox 360 rendered HD resolutions and PlayStation implemented Blu-ray player into their console. Nintendo focused on mobility and interaction.

Handheld gaming in the eighth generation was dominated primarily by the Nintendo 3DS and the PlayStation Vita. The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld video game console, released in Japan February 2011, where they presented autostereoscopic 3D to produce a glasses-free interface for 3D.

The 2D PlayStation Vita was released in December 2012 in Japan. It has a 5-inch OLED multi touch front screen and a rear touch pad, two analog sticks, 3G and WiFi connection, Sixaxis control and 3-axis electronic compass.

Nintendo announced their next generation console, unveiling of the Wii U at E3 2011, the successor to the Wii. The Wii U was released in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand in November 2012 and in Japan the following month.

Microsoft and Sony announced their new gaming platforms in the eighth generation in 2013.The fourth home console in Sony’s PlayStation series, ‘PlayStation 4’ was launched on November 15, 2013 in North America and in Europe, and was later launched on February 22, 2014 in Japan. This gaming console was a massive improvement compared to the previous console PS3. The PlayStation 4 include 8 GB of RAM memory and a faster Blu-ray drive. The Xbox One was the successor to the Xbox 360, which was launched on November 22, 2013 worldwide.  Microsoft wanted to implement strict controls over game resale and DRM controls, but later changed their mind due to public backlash